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Type II Diabetes: systemic insulin resistance. Easy, actionable steps to help manage the condition.

Updated: Dec 6, 2022

What is diabetes?

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines diabetes as a chronic disease characterised by elevated blood glucose levels.

How is blood glucose typically controlled?

Blood glucose is absorbed into the body's tissues and out of the bloodstream via insulin. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas that helps glucose move out of the blood and into the body's tissues.

What are the different types of diabetes?

  • Type 1 Diabetes

  • Type 2 Diabetes

  • Gestational Diabetes

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease where the body becomes resistant to insulin and may also involve impaired insulin production.

Type 2 diabetes was formally known as adult-onset diabetes; however, this terminology is no longer used due to the increased incidences of children with the disease.

What are some risk factors?

  • Genetic history

  • Family history

  • Race

  • Age

  • High blood pressure

  • Obesity

  • Sedentary lifestyle

  • Poor diet

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Unexpected weight loss

  • Lack of energy and difficulty concentrating

  • Frequent infections and slow wound healing

  • Numbness (tingling) in the hands and feet

  • Frequently thirsty

  • Blurriness or deteriorating vision

  • Excessive hunger

  • Easily irritated and moody

  • Fatigue [1]

Type 2 diabetes is generally asymptomatic. Therefore, regular screening for this condition is recommended for those who consider themselves within the ‘at risk’ group.

Consequences of Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Cardiovascular disease

  • Eye damage

  • Nerve damage

  • Kidney disease

  • Impaired wound healing (especially on the feet) [2]

Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Controlling the blood sugar levels is vital for managing type 2 diabetes

Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels

Stop smoking


Avoid alcohol consumption


Through education, we can protect ourselves.

Let's prevent diabetes rather than live with it

Learn more about the consequences of uncontrolled blood glucose levels here...



[1] Grootenhuis PA, Snoek FJ, Heine RJ, Bouter LM. Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist: a Measure of Symptom Severity. Diabetic Medicine. 1994;11(3):253-61.

[2] Killilea T. Long-term consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus: economic impact on society and managed care. Am J Manag Care. 2002;8(16 Suppl):S441-9.

[3] Centers for Disease C, Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease P, Health P, Office on S, Health. Publications and Reports of the Surgeon General. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2010.

[4] Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, et al. Physical Activity/Exercise and Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2065-79.

[5] Campbell IW, Nairn M. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network: management of diabetes (SIGN 55). The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2002;2(1):50-2.

[6] Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults With Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Supplement_1):S120-S43.


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